Although there is no cure for allergies, can sometimes a desensitisation to allergens through "vaccine", providing the patient with the allergen in question, gradually increasing the doses favoring the formation of IgG antibodies that block the antigen first accession to IgE . This therapy is commonly used only for inhalation allergies. However, there are specialized centers that practice successful desensitization for food allergies (well-selected cases).
You can also treat individual symptoms with drugs that inhibit the receptors of the H1 histamine (antihistamines such as cetirizine , the desloratadine and loratadine ). However, to achieve maximum effectiveness, this kind of medicine should be administered before exposure to the allergen.
They are very effective on the later phase of the action including anti-inflammatory drugs, such as cortisone (" prednisolone "," Betamethasone ") acting over a few hours. To minimize the side effects of steroids on a general, steroids are often used for local use (bronchial and nasal spray). The great advantage is determined by the very low incidence of side effects at the doses correct, and the ability to use very long (months or years to treat asthma).
Another category of anti-allergic drugs are cromones . It is a Mediterranean plant-derived products (Amni Visnaga) for local application that are administered as eye drops or nasal spray or aerosol sprays for the bronchi. Their action is to prevent the release of histamine and other irritants that would be released from special cells ( mast cells ) during allergic stimuli. The cromones are cromolyn sodium and the most recent sodium nedocromil . These also act when administered before contact with the allergen, and that is why their main use is in the prophylactic treatment of ' bronchial asthma , and only the sodium cromoglycate in the ' food allergies .
Another possible solution to tackle the problem of allergy is the Salbutamol is a selective agonist of the beta2-adrenergic receptors and is administered via aerosol before entering into contact with an allergen, or Albuterol Sulfate also known as Ventolin, having the same effect of salbutamol, only used in cases of need and in fact sold in the form of spray.
Some success have cromones : sodium cromoglycate and nedocromil , which have the ability to prevent degranulazionezione of histamine contained in mast cells .
Much more recent are leukotriene modifiers (eg montelukast), which are not specific for allergy medications being used especially in bronchial asthma (allergic or not allergic) but many studies are showing a good efficacy in allergic rhinitis. Their use for this condition is currently limited by the high cost.
The last frontier in the treatment of allergies are antiIgE antibody (omalizumab). These humanized monoclonal antibodies (not derived from humans, therefore, very sure) that recognize IgE as their "enemy" by fixing them and, thus neutralizing the effect. Are successfully used in bronchial asthma are allergic, but their widespread use is currently limited by the very high cost.
Drugs that are currently in the studio can act well before the release of histamine and in a highly selective, penetrating the interior of the cells involved in allergic reaction, and by selectively blocking only those activities that lead to the triggering of the reaction. In this way you are trying to get drugs even more effective and tolerable.