Hemoglobin A1c Test

Hemoglobin A1c Test

- also called HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin or glycohemoglobin - is an important blood test used to determine if your diabetes is well controlled.

Hemoglobin A1c is a means of monitoring blood glucose over a period of 6 to 12 weeks, used in combination on glycemic control at home to establish an adequate glucose profile for adjustments to the treatment of diabetes.

Hemoglobin A1c Test
Hemoglobin is a essence in red blood cells to carry oxygen to the body. When diabetes is notbalanced (meaning blood sugar is excessively high), glucose accumulates in the blood and combines with hemoglobin thus constituting "glycated hemoglobin". Therefore, the average amount of glucose in the blood can be determined by measuring the hemoglobin A1c for determining the blood glucose levels through a period of 120 days.

The collection ...

Blood collection for analysis of HbA1c is a venous blood on a peripheral vein (usually veins of the back of the hand or the bend of the code) on a tube containing an anticoagulant. It would be preferable to indicate any treatment taken and report it.

Normal HbA1c

For normal people, normal value of hemoglobin A1c is between 4% and 6%. Studies have repeatedly shown that poorly controlled diabetes leads to complications in the long short, the goal for people with diabetes is an A1C less than 7%. The elevated the hemoglobin A1c, the upper the risk of occurrence of diabetic complications is important.

How often should HbA1c be measured?

A person with diabetes should perform this test each 3months to determine if their blood sugar has reaching into the target stage of control. Those who have diabetes well balanced may be able to space the Hb A1c blood tests, but experts recommend checking at least two times a year.

Changes in HbA1c

A patient having diseases upsetting hemoglobin such as anemia might obtain irregular results with this test. Further abnormally may affect the domino effect of hemoglobin A1c such as overload of vitamins such-as vitamins E and C and higher cholesterol, kidney and liver can also affect the test of hemoglobin A1c.

What is Proteinuria?

What is Proteinuria?

Proteinuria is the most common urinary abnormalities, it is defined by the presence of protein in the urine (proteinuria) at a rate greater than 150 mg (0.15 g) in 24 hours.

Proteinuria can be detected at the dipstick when the rate is> 300 mg / l and must be confirmed by a laboratory quantitation (proteinuria of 24).

Proteinuria is always pathological, except in one situation where the normal proteinuria 300mg/24: pregnancy.

Proteinuria is an analysis that is done on the urine of 24 hours.
What is Proteinuria

Note: The dipstick only detects albumin from all other proteins that may exist in the urine.

Assay of proteinuria and urine collection.

The urine collection:

empty the bladder in the morning at 08 am without collecting the urine.
collect all the urine (even those of the night) until the next 08h,
Interest of the determination of proteinuria.

Proteinuria of 24 hours in a quantitative and qualitative interest:

Quantitative study: dosing of 24h (24h urine collection), there is a physiological proteinuria of 50-150 mg/24 h, when proteinuria is> 150mg/24 h is a pathological proteinuria.
Qualitative study: urinary protein electrophoresis of 24 is used to find the selectivity of proteinuria and detection of multiple myeloma.

Selectivity of proteinuria.

Selective proteinuria> 80% albumin, purity criteria of nephrotic syndrome.
Non-selective proteinuria <80% albumin, test impure nephrotic syndrome.
Circumstances of discovery of proteinuria

Proteinuria can be discovered in of exploring an edematous syndrome, screening with a dipstick,
record of hypertension or systemic disease, monitoring of pregnancy.

The main situations in which proteinuria increases.

the main situations in which proteinuria increases are:

1. Intermittent proteinuria

It proteinuria that occurs and disappears after the disappearance of the cause can be:

heart failure,
febrile illnesses in children,
haematuria macroscopic

2. Proteinuria contemporary a urinary tract infection

3. Orthostatic proteinuria

encountered in children and young adults,
may be abundant, but without clinical signs
confirmed by measurement of urine collected in strict supine for several hours (disappearance of proteinuria).

4. Proteinuria and hypertension

Hypertension old: nephro-angiosclérose
pregnant women: pre-eclampsia

5. The nephrotic syndrome post-infective

Kidney due to infection

6. Nephrotic syndrome

7. Other causes of proteinuria

There are other situations where one can find an increased proteinuria:

Urinary tract infection,
Diabetes ,
the general glomerular diseases (eg systemic diseases)
chronic interstitial nephropathy
8. Special case: proteinuria of multiple myeloma.

Proteinuria is abundant, not detected by the dipstick because the proteins other than albumin, protein electrophoresis gives a spike in multiple myeloma.


In conclusion, proteinuria should be taken as a symptom and not a disease in itself: it is not to treat the proteinuria but to seek and address the causes that led to the installation of this urinary abnormality.

Supplements for Menopause Symptoms

Supplements for Menopause Symptoms

Menopause is a stage, which takes place in every woman's life, and which can be quite difficult to solve. There is never a fast time for women, because there are so many different changes that occur in their bodies, and they must be handled a wide variety of symptoms. First, the menopause are some really intense symptoms. Similarly, the transition can cause a woman to become very uncertain, and it began to feel unfeminine because it is already pregnant and bear children.

Supplements for Menopause Symptoms
It is important that the women going through menopause is difficult to find a treatment that can help provide relief. There are so many horrible symptoms that women have to deal with anxiety into oblivion, and so of course they should get what they can carry out, if it means that you will feel better during this time. Menopause is a toy for some women, but this is rare, and therefore the major changes that are happening in a woman's body is usually a very difficult phase in their lives. Fortunately for all women is more complex care than ever before, and what you can do to find relief from their symptoms of menopause.

Note menopause is something that is very useful to do, because it significantly facilitates the symptoms of menopause. Menopause is complete, because the hormone levels up to the woman's body. When it goes through menopause hormones, and in particular, which contains estrogen and progesterone begin to fluctuate greatly, and this is what usually causes that all of the different symptoms that women have to tolerate, as they go through menopause. There are many different supplements that are available for only a few that stand out, and that doctors usually recommend.

This includes ProgestaCare Life-Flo supplement that works incredibly well. Reduces the size of the intensity of the symptoms of menopause, and how well it is a counter-balance the effects of estrogen dominance, both of which are the main factors that cause problems for women at this stage of his life. This is actually recorded the best-selling progesterone cream for women in menopause. It is inexpensive and available at most pharmacies, which makes it easy to find.

Note menopause is just one of many different treatments that can be used during menopause. All women have to go through this at some point or another, although some women are younger than the others dealing with menopause. For every woman who starts to encounter the effects of menopause, which should reach out and talk to their healthcare provider right away. Your doctor can discuss the various products that are available with the patient and tell them, whichever seems most appropriate.

Causes for Early Menopause

Causes for Early Menopause

If you're like most women thought that they would never get the time again is welcome though! However, in terms of menopause, it is much more serious than just not have the time. For some, menopause is coming soon. When this happens, it is usually caused by one of the three following reasons. Whatever the reason, as soon as the mirror normal symptoms of menopause symptoms of menopause.

Premature ovarian failure

Causes for Early Menopause
This is one of the most common causes of premature menopause. This is usually caused by an autoimmune disease where the immune system mistakenly attacks itself. Your body believes that the immune system sends antibodies to fight disease, and this issue. In some cases, your body can not control these antibodies in the genitals. When this happens, it can not happen soon, because the transition from the ovaries are badly damaged. If the ovaries are damaged, this means that the ovarian function, and this is the basic definition of menopause, and premature menopause. Although there is no right way to translate, you can take care of your health, do not know what to expect and when studying the family history, whether the presence of an autoimmune disease.


Cutting the genitals can help you with the beginning of menopause. For example, if you have the ovaries removed, it will probably be immediately pushed into early menopause. If you have a full hysterectomy, that is, ovaries, uterus and fallopian tubes removed, the experience of premature menopause as well. The main drawback of surgically induced menopause early, it can often be much more powerful than the traditional menopause. This is due to a gradual reduction of hormones in the system and everything that happens immediately.

Even if you are able to keep the ovary a hysterectomy may still be thrown into early menopause. Why is that? This is because the damage is a common ovarian surgery genitals. So even if the ovaries remain, it is possible to stop working after the surgery. This also applies to Tubal Ligation, such as surgery may also send a woman in early menopause.

Chemically induced premature menopause

The last class of premature menopause is a chemically induced menopause. This is followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy, because both could seriously damage the ovaries. Sometimes women experience cessation of menstruation during the chemical treatment itself, but even when menstruation returns to the ovaries are often too damaged to return to fertility. Many drugs for cancer, particularly breast cancer, block estrogen production, which sends the women to early menopause. Unfortunately, often times it is the only way many have the opportunity to become cancer free.

Age of Early Menopause

Age of Early Menopause

The average age of onset of natural menopause is 51 years. However, for genetic reasons, medical or following a disease, it can occur before the age of 40. Menopause occurring before this age, whether induced or premature, is that "menopause Early ".

In addition to hot flashes, mood disorders and other symptoms after menopause normal, the prematurity of early menopause causes other problems of physical and emotional. For example, early menopause marks the end of the fertile period and it would be difficult to imagine a woman who wants to get pregnant.
Age of Early Menopause

Symptoms of early menopause.

Common symptoms of early menopause are:

Irregular periods more or less abundant than usual.
Hot flashes, which means that the ovaries produce less estrogen.
It may also meet during the early menopause:

Vaginal dryness.
Irritation of the bladder and urinary incontinence.
Emotional signs (irritation, mood swings and depression passing).
Signs of dehydration in the skin, eyes and mouth.
Libido disorders.
Finally, if you are under 40 years and if you have these symptoms, you should report to your doctor in one of the following cases:

You have had chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
You or a family member has an autoimmune disease: hypothyroidism, Graves' disease or lupus.
You have tried unsuccessfully to get pregnant for over a year.
Your mother or sister had early menopause.
How to diagnose an early menopause?

The attending physician will make you automatically a physical exam and a blood test to rule out other causes early menopause, including pregnancy and thyroid disease. It is also useful to measure the level of estradiol, the main hormone estrogen. Low indicates a decreased activity of the ovary, after less than 36 is menopause.

Test the most important and most used to diagnose premature menopause and measuring the rate of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). FSH prompts the ovaries to secrete estrogen. When this secretion decreases, FSH levels rise. If it exceeds 30-40 mIU / mL, it usually indicates a menopause.

What are the risks associated with early menopause?

Like any woman in menopause, the breakdown of estrogen in women in early menopause exposed to certain diseases, including osteoporosis.

There is also an increased risk of contracting colon cancer , ovarian cancer, periodontal disease, tooth loss and cataract formation.

And the fact that contrary to natural menopause, early postmenopausal women lose up faster protective level of estrogen, the risk of contracting these diseases is even greater.

How to deal with early menopause?

Although the risks and emotional disorders are more important than the waning of natural menopause, symptomatic treatment remains the same. Women wishing to get pregnant should consult a specialist to address the issue.

Early menopause is irreversible?

As the result of an underlying process, early menopause is still reversible.

Early Onset Menopause Symptoms

Early Onset Menopause Symptoms

In addition, vaginal dryness is also a great purpose to create a loose sexual motivation, because it touches the terrible.

Early menopause symptoms are characterized by less vaginal lubrication, which reduced sexual success you want. When estrogen drops every woman will sooner or later lead to thinning and drying of the vaginal walls, which significantly increased considerably less lubrication, and can also cause major problems when one engage in sexual performance. So as a result, you'll find a lot of girls lose interest in sex altogether.

The changes are for professional use is also one of the menstrual cycle in the early menopause indicators through a series of girls. Menopause often brings hormonal imbalance, which eventually leads to their acquisition of girls in moon cycles, very soon, or delayed for longer. Hormones are what you create for each egg and ovulation when hormones are manipulated, it is useful for early or delayed menstrual cycle.
Early Onset Menopause Symptoms
Hot flushes are another very typical of early menopause symptoms, which tend to be female at this stage of everyday life. Lack of estrogen after menopause, the time often leads to the result in scorching flashes. All of this is usually caused by hormonal imbalances throughout the body, which increases the metabolism of free nature. Hot flushes are ultimately wrong signal to the adrenal glands, which pushes the excess energy.

Early menopause symptoms are clearly visible in the individual meetings of strange hair extension, especially in such areas undesirable. Testosterone is what you decide on the process of our body hair, and when it is ultimately discussed, the result of unwanted hair growth, and sometimes even lead to hair loss. When estrogen drops, so the final result of an imbalance of testosterone, which eventually lead to unwanted hair, or hair removal.

So I just came home from a long day at work to do. Everything you want to do is go to bed and get a good night's sleep. 20 minutes into a deep rest, you wake up on a very hot blue sweat and sweat. Your clothes are drenched to the extent that you need to adjust them to get used to again. These feelings come to you suddenly, you're not positive what could make this a very hot flushes. Well, if you're 40 years, or up to 30 years, it is quite possible for you to meet with a premature menopause symptoms.

For starters, let me tell you why you go through these warning signs, and I can tell you how to stop these annoying flashes and other symptoms as effectively. Premature menopause symptoms are caused by two products: the physical pain and imbalance in our estrogen levels. Some additional warning signs associated with premature or perimenopausal symptoms:

Changes in mood
Support for fatigue
Hot flashes
Vaginal dryness
Irregular period
Bladder weakness

Lupus and Menopause

Lupus and Menopause

Symptoms of Lupus / flare, and menopause. Women 42 years seems to be some of the symptoms of menopause. However, there may be a lupus flare (which hopefully is not. It been in remission 2 years). Just wondering if change the hormones that cause lupus symptoms, or if they are associated to menopause or perimenopause. about a months, has developed a sleep, waking up frequently, could not sleep the whole night, except for night sweats. Turning off the fatigue, in fact, doubled rheumotologist Provigil, It could make it through the day. So frustrated cause, but when at work do not have the energy to do anything at home. All piles up and gets overwhelming. Then have depression and anxiety.
Lupus and Menopause

Some other symptoms are: change of the head (more frequent and severe), muscle and joint pain, increased anxiety and loss of libido. Rheum also diagnosed me with fibromyalgia (which they understand is quite common in lupus patients) and irritable bowel syndrome. They also have hypothyroidism and were treated for depression and anxiety in two years (for depression improves).

Symptoms that you could be part of the transition / perimenopause - or could be lupus. Rheumy said with the aim of the hormonal fluctuations of perimenopause/menopause may increase lupus symptoms - as a result it can not be both. They see a gynecologist. They always do some hormonal lab and see what your body is doing in this department. We hope to see a gynecologist who is teary help some of these symptoms. Someone here has better ideas.

Just think that menopause and / or perimenopause, can cause symptoms similar to lupus. A mother had lupus, and her doctors are constantly trying to cause premature menopause with him, because he said, after menopause, lupus can go to the semi-permanent remission (and perhaps hormones have a lot to do in September lupus). They had not succeeded in inducing the transition to the mother, but it was certainly worth trying. Maybe you can ask your doctor about it.

They are similar to symptoms of a similar age. Following the investigation, both of Obstetrics and teary, and that most of the symptoms were controlled by a lupus treatment lupus symptoms were almost certainly cause / associated with.

When the emotional PMS (I have never had any PMS before), and unpredictable menstruation Gyno and still managed to find any obvious signs of the transition, even though he did not find any problems with Gyno, so stay due to lupus.

In any case, suggest that good research and rhuemy Gyno and it is a good idea. Lupus is a mess w / hormones that mess w / Gynecology things, and things Gyno is a mess w / hormones that mess w / lupus stuff, so it really should be tested for lupus and Gyno both corners.

Rhuemy prescribed Trazodone to help sleep may be very tired and sleep for hours, if they are still in deep, deep sleep, you can still tired. When a sleep aid, I really do not sleep less and am less tired.

How to Treat Menopause Naturally

How to Treat Menopause Naturally

Menstrual irregularities, hot flashes, sweating, hypertension, circulatory problems, insomnia, sudden mood swings, intolerance to external stimuli ... They are the classic symptoms of menopause. Live with serenity is not impossible. Here's how to minimize the "side effects" of this physiological event, with the right mental attitude and with the help of nature.

Menopause is the permanent cessation of menstruation to stop the activity of the ovaries, aged 45 to 52 years or so. It marks the end of the woman's fertile period and can be caused by physiological or pharmacological or surgical intervention. While by no means a disease but a natural physiological event, is experienced by most women as a pathological condition, a "fracture", which inevitably involves substantial physical, psychological and social. The beginning of the third age is a difficult transition for each woman, albeit in a way, subjective perceptions and expectations, is faced with practical and existential problems that can threaten her femininity and affect their quality of life. At this time already a very delicate period of profound transformations, where she enters a new phase of life, manifest a number of diseases and disorders, major changes occur in the body, there is the fear of losing their status Social and suffering, anxiety and impatience for the future for the present situation. The absence of the menstrual cycle as the scanning time can also feed the painful sensation that "their time", in a sense, has ended.
How to Treat Menopause Naturally

In ancient civilizations the menopausal woman acquired a special power, related to the "purity" found. Having completed the full course of the transformation of women (puberty, adolescence, pregnancy, menopause) to guarantee women the opportunity to access the highest civil and priestly functions. The cessation of menstrual fact sanctioned a return to the condition of original purity, the virginal innocence, and gave the real power.

Unfortunately today we live in a society guided by the logic of maximum performance, where productivity is the only measurement of the value of an individual, and the loss of reproductive capacity may be tinged with negative connotations, to become a sign of the exhaustion of its value , the loss of creative power and vital energy. It is instead the beginning of a new phase of life, in which the creative impulse, instead of pouring out cyclically, has the ability to focus entirely to the inner self. Symbolically, we are witnessing a shift of energy from below, from genital and reproductive functions, up, consciousness. If you can live positively and then, in this period, for women, integrate into their personalities a part of himself first linked to the biological world and develop a creativity that allows it to shift attention to other aspects of life. If the woman is not ready for this change to resist a chance to meet a new part of himself.

The common symptoms of menopause, hot flashes, tachycardia, dizziness speak of a flow of energy, a "fire", which, no longer locked down, tends to open up a gap to enliven the mind, consciousness . The potential biological psychic creativity is transmuted slowly, giving the woman an important opportunity for renewal and enrichment of personality. The fire of hot, freed from the "hormone storms" should instead be seen as evolutionary thrust of his personality. The circulatory disturbances, in this key are the light of the implementation of a resistance to change of role, image, status, and the reflection of "unconditional" the unconscious fear of meeting the new.

Commonly the word menopause refers to a condition of the woman and not to a specific time in the life of the menstrual cycle. In fact, from the medical point of view, menopause identifies a precise time, date of final cessation of menstrual flow. The events that precede and follow this event include a wide variety of physical and mental changes and occupy a period longer or shorter.

Premenopause: The menstrual cycle has already begun to show irregularities, but the woman does not prove any classic symptom of menopause such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Generally a woman reaches menopause after 45 years.

Perimenopause: identifies a period of about four years exactly straddling the menopause, the date of cessation of menstrual flow. The menstrual cycle is highly irregular and appear intermittent episodes of vasomotor type, hot flushes and sweats.

Menopause: the date of cessation of spontaneous menses. To identify at least one year must pass without menstrual bleeding.

Postmenopausal: identifies all the latest phase of female life, going from two years of menopause at the end of life. In this phase consolidates the changes of the vagina, uterus and changes in the bladder mucosa and muscle. Become more apparent and the urhnary loss of tone of the breast tissue. Greater risk of bone fractures for osteoporosis and the risk of diseases of the heart and blood vessels.

Disorders related to menopause can be numerous and very subjective. But undoubtedly the most reliable ones are menstrual irregularities, hot flashes and problems related to changes in the genital tract. All three of these events depend dall'abbassamento estrogen. Other symptoms such as depression, mood swings, sadness may not be directly associated with hormonal changes. It is true that low estrogen levels make women more vulnerable to stress and anxiety.

Hot flashes are the most common symptoms of menopause and affecting more than 60% of women. The hot flash is a sudden heat wave that starts from the waist or chest and reaches the neck, face and sometimes the rest of the body. Face and neck can become red and red spots present. In what often follows copious perspiration and subsequent chill a rebalancing signals the body temperature. They are very common in the evening and in hot weather, but can also occur during the day. Are also possible triggers strong emotions, sudden changes in temperature, digestion difficult. Each hot flash lasts from 15 seconds to 30 minutes, the average is still 5 minutes. Sometimes heart palpitations accompanied by hot flashes.

Drug use is not always the best solution to quench hot flashes. If we can limit the discomfort with simple precautions: avoid wearing synthetic clothes (preventing perspiration), use cotton sheets, do not put neck, keep cool drinks at hand, stop smoking (smoking narrows blood vessels and can intensify and prolong the flushing) avoid coffee, alcohol, sweets, spicy foods, abundant meals, exercise (improves circulation). The lowering of estrogen has important implications on the reproductive system of women, since they make the mucosa moist and supple female sexual organs. The vagina, poorly stimulated, becomes thinner, loses elasticity and becomes dry and barren. The decrease in secretory capacity also transforms the vaginal environment that reduces its normal acidity, which makes the vagina more vulnerable to infections, especially fungal ones. Although the uterus is gradually reduced in volume and retracts.

The changes of menopause, sometimes seriously interfere with sexual activity due to reduced capacity for secretion, the vagina tends to lubricate and slightly more slowly, which may make intercourse painful.
One of the most important health problems of women in menopause is a risk of osteoporosis, where bones become thin, brittle and more prone to fracture. There are now numerous scientific evidence that estrogen deficiency associated with this progressive and debilitating disease, which in fact seems more closely related to menopause than a woman's biological age. The risk of osteoporosis is higher in smokers in alcohol abusers, in women undergoing surgical removal of the ovaries, in those who underwent lengthy treatment with corticosteroids and in all situations of nutritional deficiency.

The menopause brings with it the increased risk to some serious diseases: hypertension, atherosclerosis, angina and stroke, very popular after a certain age. Estrogen protects women of childbearing age from these diseases, but protection disappears rapidly after menopause when the estrogen level drops drastically and the risk of cardiovascular disease increases over the years. After menopause there is a change in the levels of blood fats of women as a direct result of estrogen sag. LDL cholesterol, the bad, increases and decreases HDL, the good one. Elevated LDL and total cholesterol may contribute to the development of stroke and heart attack.

Natural remedies
Many women now realize that drugs are not the only answer to the problems of the female menopause. The contribution of natural medicine is focused on strengthening women's body, promoting balance and self-regulation during this phase of life. Alternative treatments during menopause shift the interest from estrogen replacement therapy on natural ways of self-care. Eating habits and nutritional changes accompanied by specific natural therapies such as acupuncture, shiatsu, herbal medicine, homeopathy, Bach flowers and oligotherapy have shown, in different sizes, you can relieve menopause symptoms. (Menstrual irregularities, hot flashes, night sweats, heart palpitations, vaginal dryness and mood changes) and to reduce the risk of osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease.

Hormone replacement therapy
The cyclicity of the menstrual flow in women of childbearing age depends on the balance between the hormone estrogen, progesterone, FSH, LH. During menopause, the hormonal balance begins to change: estrogen and progesterone are generally lower than the norm, and FSH and LH are higher menstrual flow is still present but in an irregular manner. This occurs because the ovaries become less responsive to stimulation of the pituitary hormones. Decreases so the ovarian production of estrogen and progesterone, which results in a shortening and irregular cycles. A shortest cycle is often the first sign of perimenopause. The gradual fall in hormone levels leading to the cessation of ovulation and the disappearance of the menstrual cycle (menopause).

Hormone replacement therapy has proved effective in reducing and, sometimes, resolution of many menopausal disorders. Recent studies have turned their attention to certain substances called isoflavones, often also referred to as phytoestrogens (plant estrogens) as their biological activity is similar to that of the female hormone, estrogen. The most important isoflavones for humans are contained mainly in two plants, soy and black cohosh racemosa. The therapeutic effectiveness of Cimicifuga racemosa has been known since antiquity, and owes its name to the fact that once was used to ward off the bugs, they do not like the smell of its flowers, and against snake bites. Very best known are the properties of soy isoflavones, but the plant, to keep intact its rich content of active ingredients must be absolutely "not genetically modified."

Foods and beverages that become part of our diet not only directly affect the health of our bodies, but also our appearance, mood and vital energy that sets us apart. For women in menopause is important, first, require adequate and well-balanced diet, supplemented with specific foods that can improve the function of organs involved and reduce the symptoms connected with this period. Here then is some dietary rules to deal with menopause with confidence and without interference.

Organic Food: grains, vegetables and organic fruits, vegetables and fish, they offer the best guarantee of healthy, balanced meals, refining and storage of foods greatly impoverishes the nutritional value. Many women of menopausal age are not subject to hot flashes, painful menstrual irregularities and vaginal dryness are vegetarians or take special plant foods. Among those plants are to be preferred: whole grains (oats, wheat, barley, rice, rye), herbs (sage, parsley, mint, garlic), vegetables (fennel, carrots, potatoes, green beans), fruit (apples, pomegranates, cherries, dates, citrus fruits, berries), legumes (soy, peas, lentils, beans).

PHYTOESTROGENS: found in many plant foods that stimulate the body's production and adjust the level of estrogen and progesterone. Soy in all its forms it is very rich, but many other plant foods contain them. Here's where to find the phytoestrogens: garlic, alfalfa, dill, orange, whole oats, carrots, Cimicifuga racemosa, Brussels sprouts, cherries, onion, coconut, cumin, tarragon, bittersweet, beans, fennel, ginkgo biloba, ginseng, wheat buckwheat, raspberry, lentils, lemon, licorice, apple, peppermint, blueberry, blackberry, whole barley, dwarf palm, sweet potato, peas, tomatoes, rhubarb, green, brown rice, rue, sage, skullcap, sunflower seeds, Flax seeds, rye, sesame, soy, tea, red clover, grapes.

Low fat: A healthy diet is not entirely devoid of fat, and some in fact are nutritionally essential. The linoleic acid and linolenic acid are essential fatty acids, useful in women approaching menopause because the dryness of the fight tissues, especially the vagina and skin. Also regulate blood pressure and cholesterol levels, protecting against the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. Foods that contain these valuable fatty acids are walnuts, hazelnuts, almonds, seeds and their oils, natural soy and its derivatives.

BIOFLAVONOIDS: are substances naturally present in foods and have a moderate estrogenic activity. For this are useful in controlling menopause symptoms, especially hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Foods that contain more you have all leafy greens, the skin of grapes, berries, cherries and white pulp of citrus.

Vitamin E: Regulatory action has on hormones produced by the pituitary to stimulate the ovaries. Insomnia, vaginal dryness, hot flashes, menopause symptoms are palpitations themselves of a diet with adequate intake of vitamin E. We are rich in fish and crab meat, whole grains, asparagus, cabbage, eggs, almonds, nuts, seeds and oils of organic cold-pressed.

LESS PROTEINS: proteins can have positive effects if they are not always derived from animal and consumed in excess. Red meat worsen menstrual pain and symptoms of premenstrual syndrome increases the risk of osteoporosis, being rich in phosphates that interfere with the absorption and excretion of calcium. Excess protein can lead to a reduced absorption of calcium and magnesium and a lack of B vitamins, with important consequences on bone metabolism. Reduce consumption of animal protein, favoring fish, white meats and legumes.

LESS SUGAR: The refined white sugar is not only free of their nutrients than other types of sugars contained in foods directly, but affect the absorption of calcium can trigger hot flashes and forces the body to consume many vitamins, especially group B, which are actively involved in its metabolism. All this does not help the woman who, near the menopause, must face the direct risk of osteoporosis and needs a diet rich in essential nutrients. Gradually replace the sugar grains and organic fruit.

LITTLE COFFEE: Caffeine is a powerful stimulant of the central nervous system that often over-excited, reacts causing anxiety, tachycardia, palpitations, tremors and headaches. Hot flashes, night sweats and insomnia in many women in the age of menopause are just triggered by caffeine. The coffee is not the only source of caffeine, is also found in tea, chocolate, many soft drinks and many medicines.

NO ALCOHOL: Alcohol is generally not good for your health, and affects, significantly, on the health of women approaching menopause. Insomnia, depression and hot flashes are aggravated by alcohol consumption. Also interferes with the absorption of calcium and vitamin D metabolism, increasing the risk of developing osteoporosis.

SHORT SALE: in women approaching menopause, the salt can produce hot flashes and contribute to calcium loss from bones. It can also aggravate disorders of PMS (irritability, headache, mood fluctuations, bloating and breast pain). To reduce your salt intake is not enough to just add salt to food. The labels of many packaged foods appear the words salt or sodium. The salt is not only used to flavor food but also as a preservative at low cost. Then gradually begin to make less of potato chips, crackers, salami and other cured meats, cheeses, processed food "ready" packaged, canned and smoked meats.

Some homeopathic remedies, by virtue of the general and deep that distinguishes them, can become a valuable alternative treatment for menopause symptoms.

LACHESIS mutus: is the remedy most commonly used in menopause. The symptoms evoked by the venom of Lachesis Mutus, a snake that lives in the forests of tropical America, are strikingly similar to those that accompany the arrival of menopause: hot flashes, palpitations, menstrual irregularities, headaches with throbbing sensation and weight, mood changes, insomnia with difficulty falling asleep. The hot Lachesis are accompanied by a feeling of icy cold feet, palpitations by a nagging sense of anxiety or chest tightness that forces you to unbutton his shirt. The headache is a headache, or supraorbital back, sometimes they are manifested as headache with pain in the left buttons. Lachesis absolutely does not tolerate the constraints, does not like confined spaces and the physical contact and annoyance for all tight clothing (no tight clothing and necklace sets, belts can not stand. Anxious and sad in the morning happy and full of life in the evening , jealous and fearful woman Lachesis alternates moments of silence and periods of voracious loquacious.

GRAPHITES: is useful for treating symptoms of perimenopause, especially in women who are grossly overweight, pale and chilly, with problems of constipation and flatulence. Their skin is usually dry with spots and blisters that ooze fluid. Women are often indecisive, apathetic, sad, melancholy, sometimes frankly depressed. Extremely sensitive are moved easily, cry listening to music or seeing an exciting show. Graphites women experience a sensation of itching before or during menstruation, which is delayed, limited in quantity and rather short.

SEPIA: obtained by the ink of the cuttlefish is a useful remedy to relieve the ailments that accompany menopause, especially in lean women, the hair and dark eyes, and frequent problems with their liver and urinary disorders of the genitourinary system. The changes in the genitourinary apparatus, which can get to a descent of the uterus and bladder (prolapse), are a sign of the fall "down" mood, and the élan vital. Sepia in effect, she has a feeling of heaviness in the pelvis and the impression that everything falls down. So his mood is linked to characters of sadness, pessimism and irritability that give Sepia a vision of black life. In addition, the vaginal dryness that follows menopause greatly aggravates the state of frigidity and difficulties of living peacefully sex that often accompanies the woman Sepia. This leads to increase the natural tendency to isolation of these people.

THUY: it is one of the great basic homeopathic remedies. Equipped with wide and deep action, is particularly suitable for menopause symptoms affecting mainly the genital apparatus. The menstrual cycles are irregular, with early and prolonged menstruation, or scarce and intermittent. The woman who has more than it benefits from Thuya characteristics: it is chilly, with a tendency to obesity, where fat is concentrated mainly in the trunk and hips, and legs are thin and are sometimes perceived as fragile and delicate. The facial skin is oily and greasy and are often evident in the body and small benign skin growths. She has often been Thuya medical treatment with antibiotics, steroids, or worse has seen some of his problems after vaccinations. Thuya has obsessive ideas such as the fear of death or illness, the impression of not being able to sustain its body and the feeling of having something alive in the belly.

IGNATIA: remedy to consider if prevailing psychic symptoms characterized by instability, sudden mood changes (transition from laughter to tears from depression to joy) or paradoxical behavior (hysterical laughter upon hearing bad news, you feel better in the noise) . Another feature is the appearance of symptoms after a disappointment.

Minerals, seemingly minor items, are an important source of natural medicine in the treatment of menopause symptoms.

MANGANESE - COBALT: basic products for the treatment of common ailments of menopause and can be effectively combined with other natural therapies. Manganese regulates sleep patterns, reduces mood swings and alleviates any excessive and painful uterine contractions irregular cycle of premenopausal. Cobalt acts on the vasomotor disturbances, improving the episodes of tachycardia and palpitations, especially mitigating hot flashes.

COPPER - GOLD - SILVER: to be used in all those cases in which the menopause is associated with fatigue, lack of vitality and inability to adapt to a new state of the organism. Do not forget that these disorders often lead to depression and isolation. In addition, anti-infective properties and the ability to reinforce its Copper-Gold-Silver help to prevent episodes of genitourinary infections, common in many women in the age of menopause.

ZINC - COPPER: complex control of the pituitary-adrenal-genital heart, in particular zinc is a regulator of the pituitary. It is used in the treatment of hormonal disorders, smooths the flushing symptoms during the acute phase. If you experience anxiety even better to add magnesium.

Disorders involving the menopause, vasomotor, nervous, hormonal and genital load, can be addressed with herbs. Indeed, in some cases it can also act as a preventive measure. The greatest effect is on the autonomic nervous system, which favors the balance.

SAGE: known for centuries for its ability to regulate the menstrual flow, has now found a solid scientific confirmation in the complementary treatment of menopause symptoms. Sage is in fact very rich in phytosterols, the so-called "natural estrogens". These, although much lower than hormonal activity of estrogen produced by the ovary, if taken in good time and perseverance before gently relieve the discomforts of menopause, estrogen deficiency.

Black Horehound: Contains pro-hormones that reduce hot flashes and shows sedative properties. It is traditionally stated, thanks to the sedative and anxiolytic, in anxiety manifestations that accompany menopause.

HEART: dissolves irritability by relaxing the nervous system, tones the heart, soothes and regulates the pressure, real panacea against spasms and palpitations, bridle stress. It is used as a sedative in cardiac autonomic disorders: sudden rises and drops in pressure, hot flushes.

CRANBERRY RED: acts by attenuating the symptoms of reduced ovarian production of estrogen and progesterone that occur during menopause or when there has been an abuse of synthetic hormone therapies.

RASPBERRY: used in women's hormonal disorders and disorders of menopause, has antispasmodic properties and endocrine rebalancing in the uterus.

MELISSA: exerts a relaxing action on the nervous system and at the same tonic and empowering: soothes nervous tension and anxiety, relieves stress related disorders such as somatization and acts on the digestive spasms, palpitations, headache, dizziness, upward trend in blood pressure. It gives peace of mind, takes away the anxiety, calms the restlessness, overcomes sadness and boredom, psychological symptoms are often common in menopause.

Passiflora: its therapeutic action occurs mainly in relation to hot flashes, more action also has anxiolytic, reducing anxiety, promotes sleep nightly.

GINGKO: it is a good medicine for the elderly. Useful in cerebral circulatory insufficiency, arterial disease in lower limbs, vertigo, memory and decreases in depression, recurring problems at this stage of life.

OLIVE: solar plant, a symbol of peace, is a remedy for high blood pressure, lowers blood pressure by peripheral vasodilatation with no effect cardiodepressore. Particularly suitable for those with the least and those who suffer from high blood pressure source anxious.

HAWTHORN: cardiotonic, ipotensore, sedating the nervous system, is the calming of the heart par excellence. Lowers blood pressure because it improves circulation, reduces the emotional, the hypertension and improves sleep. Effective in neurovegetative dystonia disorders (anxiety, anxiety, dizziness, irritability, insomnia, palpitations, tachycardia, angina, and vascular spasms). Used to prevent menopausal hot flashes, tachycardia, angina, in associane with hormone phytoestrogen which offset the decline.

EQISETO: its activity is twofold, both as a diuretic and as a re-mineralizing the high silica content, bone mineral which enters into the constitution: the second law of "biological transmutation" of the silicon plant is transformed into calcium. Is used to prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis.

The essential oils of sage and lemon balm are the best herbs to deal with menopause symptoms. The lemon balm essential oil induces sleep and regulates mood calming the nervous excitability. The essential oil of sage helps balance psychologically to respond to hormonal changes of menopause: is able to act with an overall balancing effect, relaxing, reviving and stabilizing the energies of the mind. Place 5 drops of 5 Sage and Melissa in a special speaker for the essences in the bedroom before going to sleep.

Flower Therapy
Flower therapy proves to be useful in alleviating some of the situations of distress related to menopause mental sphere. It should however be considered a complementary treatment to other possibilities of natural medicine such as homeopathy, herbal medicine, acupuncture and acupressure.
Mustard: relieves depression that seems to depend on for no apparent reason.

SCLERANTUS: assists when the mood is black; beneficial in the sudden and unexplained mood swings.

OLIVE: useful for restoring energy in the event of weakness and fatigue.

Mimulus: against the fear of growing old.

STAR OF BETHLEHEM: it is a comfort to those who feel the "weight of years"; useful at all times of sadness and melancholy experienced in relation to the loss of youth.

Physical activity
Practicing physical activity is consistently one of the best things you can do better than women to experience changes, physically and mentally, that accompany menopause. Physical activity exerts intense stresses that increase bone density and strength, the bones of the female organism in the first 4-5 years after menopause lose 5% of their density. It helps regulate levels of cholesterol and blood sugar, protecting by atherosclerosis and diabetes. Also you can hold off the blood pressure and reduce the risk of other cardiovascular diseases, risk increases after menopause. The slow and prolonged aerobic activities are more appropriate (bicycle, walking incurred, jogging), and yoga, qi gong, tai ji quan, bioenergetics, Pilates, disciplines are the most effective.

Women in Medicine History

Women in Medicine History

Amerindian civilizations, those of Africa, to Asia, then it was a melting pot of Eurasian populations of Mesopotamia, the testimonies are confirming the role of women as an active and exclusive carrier of relief, balance, health and prosperity for his family and for the communities of which was an integral part. The history of medicine shows us examples of Aztec women were allowed to practice as a healer, the only drawback was that they had to practice at a mature age, after menopause.

These ways of life, this common sense, these simple and rich traditions at the same time notions handed down for generations and delicate and profound relationship with nature, they encountered difficult times.

One of the worst consequences of which came to affect his life for many centuries to come, it was certainly that of the Inquisition. Historians still argue about how many were victims of that period, the figures vary, but all agree, however, that the vast majority of victims were women.
Women in Medicine History
They were swept away ancient traditions and cultures of care and well-being and furiously attacks were erased all the tracks on the psychological well-being and harmony with nature and the universe, which has been handed down in texts distinguished, as in the Gospels to the Essenes. This strategy of assured destruction to men only medical knowledge, as was decreed at that time, more or less official, that only doctors could practice medicine educated in the arts healers, and that medical schools were prohibited from women.

The exception is the school of Salerno, an illustrious Medical Academy was founded around the year 1000, where he found traces of a "midwife", Trotula, "matron sapiens", perhaps clever midwife, from the family of Roger of Salerno, of Lombard origin.

In Catania in 1370 was duly licensed to practice in all the kingdom of Sicily, another rare exception, Dr. Vidimura, wife of a famous physician of the time, it seems that medicine at that time was the prerogative of the privileged wives and daughters of doctors.

Since then, we said, the women became slaves and passive subjects of all medical activities, as evidenced by the numerous treatises on diseases and women's issues.

Emblematic of this closure is in Europe the great surgeon von Bergmann in Berlin in 1882, while not declaring all misogynist, did not accept female students to his courses, stating that the provisions of the statute contemplated only university "the education of young men."

Just over a century ago, timidly, women reappeared in the academies of medicine. At the University of Florence, for example, seems to be the first woman graduated in 1877, but it was an isolated case, having started his university studies in Zurich.

At first boycotted, ridiculed, reduced to long years of quiet subservience to their male counterparts, then, with effort and patience, women have obtained a role. The challenges were primarily cultural in nature, often intrinsic to the family, that is to come from the new one. While the former sought to hinder in any way will play the roles of the daughter of a profession considered exclusively male, the newly formed family brought with them the heavy burden of family organization with all the consequences that derive from them on the professional and his career.

Female doctors between 1800 and 1900
Women were accepted without discrimination in universities and in the medical profession only in the late 1800's and early 1900.

In the new world the figure of the woman doctor is "his space" to the first half of the 800, such that proliferate around the country, private medical schools.

Soon comes a movement for health reform with the aim of promoting "good shape" through public information campaigns.

During the period of the "lady doctor" no shortage of famous names, beginning with Elizabeth Balckwell accepted by Geneva Medical College in upstate New York, graduated in 1849 as the first woman doctor, after only two years of study. In 1854, Emily's sister became a doctor, traveled to Europe and attended various hospitals to gain more experience. That same year, Ann Preston became professor of physiology and hygiene, graduating at the Woman's Medical College in Philadelphia, the first medical school for women founded in October 1850 by a group of enlightened physicians of the city. Of German origin but Marie E. Zakrzewka (later better known as Dr. Zak). He attended the same college that has graduated from Emily Balckwell and, despite some hostility, he graduated with honors in 1856.

But the figure most prestigious among the "female doctors" is that of Mary Putnam Jacobi. In 1863 he graduated in Pharmacy in New York and soon after he completed his doctorate in medicine at the Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania, pursuing the belief that to become good doctors is essential to have a good scientific background, but also a great compassion for suffering people. Become spokesman of the female doctor in charge of the Working Women's Society and the Association for the Advancement of the Medical Education for Women.

The desire of these pioneers of medicine is to pay particular attention to the health problems of women and children. In 1900 American women doctors are hundreds and represent 5% of all physicians.

Dorothy Reed, pathologist, first describes the typical cells of Hodgkin's disease, Eliza Morher, professor of hygiene, becomes an expert in public health, while Ruth bacteriologist Tunnicliffe will be bright and Florence Sabin will be distinguished in research on the anatomy of the nervous system.

Historians identify Lucrezia Cornaro Piscopia the first woman graduate in medicine in the world: the University of Padua in 1678 would have achieved the coveted goal. In the early years of the next century, to Bologna, Dorotea Bocchi and Anna Morandi Manzolini dedicated to the study of anatomy, the first succeeded his father, the second husband. Another famous teacher, able to attract not only many lessons to his students, but cardinals, nobles and dignitaries, is Laura Bassi, wife of Dr. Verratti.

Among the figures that have been imposed in the world of science and the medical profession over the past two centuries, we like to remember Maria from the Women, the first Professor of Midwifery in the Royal University of Bologna, who graduated in philosophy and medicine in 1799, and then directing in 1804, the school of midwifery.

Maria Montessori, born in Ancona in 1870, is the first woman to graduate in Medicine and Pedagogy (but also in natural sciences and philosophy). It is imposed with his method of education, appreciated all over the world, specializing in childhood mental handicap. Author of "Method of classification of defectives, the starting point for their pedagogical treatment", in 1904 she was appointed assistant at the University of Rome, and two years later he was able to experience his method of "self-education," defined as the maximum freedom for children, especially in pre-primary stage.

More recently, with regard to scientific research, a significant example of Turin is the Rita Levi Montalcini, Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1986 and discoverer of NGF, the nerve growth factor.

Other names just mentioned deserve no less important, but the medical profession, women in our country is more consistency from the first decades of this century. Culturally they were difficult years if, as reported by the Lombard Medical Journal in 1932, a Dr. Berti openly challenged the woman's "ability" to practice medicine, then encouraged by Professor Pende asserted that in 1939 the journal "Education physio-psychic "factors that the perversion of feminine nature would be three: first, the willingness of economic emancipation, second, the desire for emancipation, marriage and family, third, the spiritual emancipation, studies of men doing the same.

But slowly, the cultural evolution and flexibility in designing a progressive roles, has facilitated the acquisition of more space and prestige to women in the professions.

Numerical increase
Quantitatively, the beginning of this century there has been a rapid growth of the white coats for women.

The National Federation of Medical Associations in 1978 worked out a detailed census of medical. It turned out that female doctors were about 17,000 of a total of 143,000 medical professionals, then 11, 8% were distributed mainly in the regions (8,300 approx), 4,500 in Central, 2,500 in Southern, 1,700 in the islands.

The above analysis of census made another interesting comparison to put the cultural level of the student population from 1946 to 1977.

While the '46-'47 1'80% of students graduating elementary to middle school on the 18th% lower, 6% of high school and only 4% graduated in the '77-'78 data change significantly, and, thanks to improved economic and social conditions, increased 9% graduate students, high school graduates to 20%, and those less than 27% of middle school.

If the indices of schooling have increased over the years, have derived great benefit certainly the women, who have found more channels and more opportunity in which to express. To date, the growth trend is leavened. In the academic year '95-'96 it has been overtaken by women as regards the entries for the Bachelor of Medicine.

The female doctors, a survey done by the Permanent Commission for the problems of the woman doctor and dentist, established at the National Federation of the Orders in September 1994, some 100,000 of a total of 330,000 doctors (about 30%) and their distribution on the area follows the data from the first census of the doctors, drawn up in June 1978 by the Federation itself.

The numerical growth we're seeing, while it makes a strong female component of the class, the other extends and aggravates the phenomenon of the 'medical plethora "that impoverishes and degrades the entire profession. Consider that at the census date of 1 was estimated a ratio of 1 doctor-population of 394, and even then it constituted a surplus of about 49,000 doctors!

As silent image of woman-doctor
Currently, if we were to sketch the figure of the woman doctor, so we define: committed, competitive, prepared, permeable to the models of success and career, active in reconciling its many facets and social roles (wife, mother, grandmother), enthusiastic about his work .

But even for the frustrated career often hampered, torn between exciting but very tiring roles, disturbed by the limitations that imposes the male hegemony of power.

Women have occupied many branches of medicine for many years had been forbidden them, see the surgeries etc.., Address articulated specialties (cardiology, gynecology, psychiatry, etc..), Then there is an opening in the range of job prospects . But on the other hand, most, by choice or necessity, is dedicated to basic medicine, pediatrics or operates the hospital work with few career ambitions.

A document given by "Medical Federation," we read that her fellow female doctors met in conference in May 1921, at which it was founded Association of Medical Women which collected the 200 women graduates at that time, determined that the operating range of women should be that the treatment and prevention of child and woman.

Here I quote: "... the women doctors, women maintaining their poetic soul, establish their right, to the doctors the woman and child, prevention, protection and care ...".

Whose motto is still "soul Matris GP", the first form of women's organizations in the medical field, it was proposed, echoing the experiences of overseas associations, to enhance the work of women, promote inclusion, improve health care services. To date the association, after 75 years of growing business, is fighting for the image and the rights of woman doctor in the early 900 While she mainly chose pediatrics as a specialty and hygiene and worked in "... promote consultation and obstetric clinics with the teachings of special precepts of hygiene, maternal nurseries for expectant mothers and illegitimate poor, improve sections of the hospital midwives, promote moral protection, health and hygiene of maternity and infancy, etc. ... ", today is expressed in Research in the operating room, ward, in the comfort of home, in solidarity.

What is still lacking, which is recorded between the college and lives mainly in a hospital and university in a highly visible, is the lack of equal opportunities for advancement.

T Cells in the Immune System

T Cells in the Immune System

Cells of the immune system responsible for defense reactions of the body against foreign substances he considers.

Cells belong to the family of leukocytes (white cells), representing approximately 20 to 30% of blood leukocytes, or 1 000 to 4 000/mm 3. They are distinguished by their small size (7 to 9 microns in diameter), their nucleus, round or ovoid, and their cytoplasm, scarce and poor in granules.
T Cells in the Immune System

There are several types of cell, defined by both their function and membrane markers, designated according to the nomenclature CD (cluster of differentiation, or class differentiation) followed by a number. These markers are molecules defines a group of cells with common properties. These different types derived from the same precursors, lymphoid stem cells from bone marrow hematopoietic.

B cells

These immune system cells represent about 10% of lymphocytes circulating in the blood and develop in the bone marrow (bone marrow in English, hence the name). B cells are responsible for humoral immune response: they are specialized in the production of antibodies, they secrete after being transformed into plasma cells and that play in the "humors" (liquid) from the body. Their activation is a multistep process: B lymphocytes carry immunoglobulins - or antigen receptors - on their cytoplasmic membrane, each cell with a type of immunoglobulin of its own. When one of them encounters a circulating antigen, complementary to the immunoglobulin is the signal for him that he must produce antibodies (immunoglobulins identical to those of its membrane, but in soluble form) to fight against this foreign antigen. Lymphocytes from all divisions of such a B cell clone formed a group called and are endowed with the same specificity and the same mission as the parent cell.

T cells

These immune system cells whose maturation occurs in the bone marrow and the thymus - hence the name - gland at the top of the chest behind the breastbone. T cells differentiate into two populations responsible for the cellular immune response.

- The auxiliary CD4 T lymphocytes, or T "helper" or T4, are specialized in the secretion of cytokines (including interleukins), molecules enabling them to cooperate with other cells, which are responsible for the elimination of antigens.
- The CD8 T cells or T8, include two types of cells: cytotoxic lymphocytes capable of killing cancer cells, foreign or those infected with a virus, and suppressor T cells, whose role is to control immune responses.

As B cells, T cells have membrane molecules - antigen receptors - adapted to the recognition of the antigen against which they struggle. But it must be presented to them by a specialized cell such as a macrophage, which degrades the antigen and prepares the fragments by combining them with molecules that have a say, the molecules of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Them, vary from one individual to another, also determine the potential for graft between two subjects.

- NK cells (natural killer of English, natural killer) cells are related to T cells, with whom they share some membrane markers. These cells are endowed with natural cytotoxic activity, they exert spontaneously to destroy cells infected by viruses or cancer cells. Their properties can be enhanced by interleukins secreted by T cells, is referred to as LAK cells (lymphokine activated killer, killer activated by lymphokines). The use of these cells in the treatment of certain cancers is still experienced.

Lymphocytes are explored quantitatively by blood count, the study of their distribution between different types based on the expression of membrane molecules of differentiation, as evidenced by highly sophisticated techniques now (immunophenotyping). There is also the most functional exploration methods, which promote the ability to study cell response to activation signals.

Cells can proliferate (leukemia), decrease in number or have functional abnormalities (congenital or acquired immune deficiency such as AIDS). There are also many diseases related to various cell dysfunctions such as autoimmune diseases (multiple sclerosis, diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythematosus, etc..) Or allergic (asthma, hay fever).

Immune System Deficiency

Immune System Deficiency

The immune system consists of a set of complex processes inherent in our body to defend against foreign substances or harmful pathogens and deficient cells in the body.
Immune System Deficiency

The main triggers of disease are viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites (worms, for example).

In general, we distinguish the innate immune system (nonspecific) and adaptive immune system (specific).

The innate immune system includes barriers such as skin and mucous membranes, inflammatory reactions to foreign bodies or infections or blood components that can destroy diseased cells. One of the main differences in the innate immune system in relation to the adaptive immune system is the fact that the innate system is able to make an effective first contact with a threat.

With the adaptive immune system, specific, however, there must be a first contact - for example with a virus or a foreign substance to the body. Specific cells then form against these foreign substances (antigens, in medical jargon), which release immune substances (antibodies) to destroy the threat or who are able to directly kill foreign cells. The main advantage of the adaptive immune system is its''memory''SBB. Thanks to the memory cells, the body can react quickly and effectively against the antigen, even after several years. This is known as immunity against the corresponding risk.

The innate and acquired immune systems work together and complement each other in defense of the body.

Weak immune
The terms''low''or''immune compromised immune''confusing but are often used to refer to children and adults who develop a recurrent infections, especially in the upper respiratory tract. For these people, it would be more appropriate to talk about susceptibility to infection as immune deficiency, since the existence of that impairment is difficult to prove - unless there is actually a pathological failure of the immune system .

Susceptibility to infections occur both among healthy individuals and in those already ill. There are several risk groups: children, smokers or patients with chronic lung or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at particular risk.

These recurrent infections may (even if they do not have long term consequences) be very unpleasant and affect quality of life of the individual, but also cause social problems, such as absences from school or work , a stigmatization of children as a result of fear of contamination of other parents or a decrease in social contacts.
Important: Individuals susceptible to infection usually have an intact immune system and could benefit from immunostimulation. Only people with normal immune systems can benefit from a non-specific immunostimulation!

It should clearly differentiate a susceptibility to infection (immune deficiency) and immunodeficiency. In the case of immune deficiency, the restriction of immune function can be demonstrated and assessed through examinations. We know a number of congenital and acquired immunodeficiency (AIDS or adverse drug reactions, for example). The people involved often fall sick and can, from relatively mild infections, develop severe illness, sometimes involving life-threatening.

Patients with specific immunodeficiency can not benefit from a non-specific immunostimulation by any drug. Depending on the cause of immune deficiency, the only targeted treatment prescribed by a specialist can provide effective protection.

How the HIV virus attacks the immune system

How the HIV virus attacks the immune system

Bern (ots) - The molecular shield of the AIDS virus
The envelope of the AIDS virus is fraught with "spikes" called spicules, which help to penetrate the host cell. But our immune system, these spicules are also points of attack against the virus. Researchers supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (NSF) have now discovered how HIV manages to thwart the host defense.
How the HIV virus attacks the immune system

The AIDS virus, HIV, like a ball bristling with dozens of tiny "spikes" called spicules. These are formed by the envelope proteins of the virus, and they are both his weapon and his weak point. On the one hand, the virus needs to enter host cells and reproduce. The other, they are all points of attack: the antibodies produced immune system to neutralize the AIDS virus are in fact directed against all parts of spicules.

Game of cat and mouse once in the body of the patient, the virus is constantly changing to evade antibodies. Forcing the immune system to constantly create new antibodies suitable. "This is the game of cat and mouse," says Alexandra Trkola, Institute of Medical Virology, University of Zurich. With colleagues at the University Hospital of Zurich and ETH, the team has shown it takes as part of a recently published study (*) that the spicules of the virus with molecular shields. Their function: antibodies protect against certain structures of particular importance to the virus.

These shields are composed of two neighboring domains and a flexible envelope protein, such as loops that wrap around the loose spicules. In trials conducted on genetically modified viruses, Alexandra Trkola team found that when these loops are missing, the human immune system can inhibit the virus without any problems.

A completely different approach Another thing: it was not known until the exact position of these loops - despite intensive efforts worldwide to obtain information from viral proteins crystallized. Researchers Alexandra Trkola group opted for a completely different approach. They rebuilt a spike, which is normally composed of three identical proteins, from two genetically modified variants of this protein: one fitted and one private loop protection. This allowed them to conclude that the protective loops extend to the neighboring protein.

"It gives us a better idea of ​​the position of the loop," says Alexandra Trkola. But know this exact position is important in view of developing a preventive vaccine against AIDS. "But the path to get there is still long," warns the researcher.

Describe the immune system

Describe the immune system

Your immune system is essential for your good health, which means attention to is important. However, it is likely you will probably not see much thought to how your body protects you against disease. The ads talk about building your resistance as if you were pushing the muscles. It is not so simple.
Describe the immune system

Writers describe the immune system that does its job as if it was to rally the troops and go to war. Soldiers can be there, but there is no commander in chief and because the systems of your body moves much faster than any human army. It monitors your organic business with the outside world through billions of pieces of information on incoming materials and takes action only when necessary.

The immune system itself is made up of special cells, proteins, tissues and organs and in most cases is a very good job of keeping you healthy. Their core work is to defend your body against infectious organisms and other invaders. Sometimes it has problems which can lead to infection and disease.

White blood cells are the main. They are the soldiers and provide a communications network that helps organize the immune response. Their spots are specialized: some make antibodies, some engulf junk into the bloodstream, some zero in on cancer cells, while others may return against your own body cells have the opportunity. Others memory or a sense of history. These are the cells that remember a time when they produce an antibody to a certain microbe such as influenza, so that when the flu comes around again the cells immediately recognize and produce antibodies destroy. This process is fundamental to the vaccination.

Work your immune system is to protect your body from infections such as cancer, bacteria such as Streptococcus (strep) and polio virus. It protects you by creating a barrier that prevents bacteria and viruses from entering your corps.Si a bacterium or virus gets it in your body, the immune system tries to detect and eliminate before she makes a home and reproduces. If the virus or bacteria can reproduce and start causing problems, your immune system can detect the problem in the early stages and try to eliminate.

Your immune system nautres jobs, too, but you have to keep in good shape, so that it can do its job.

Most people do not realize that the skin is essential when it comes to protect you. The skin not only forms a wall against intruders, but actually it prevents white blood cells if you cut yourself and bacteria enter your injury. Therefore, if your skin is whole and unbroken, it is almost impossible to pick up an infection a toilet seat, regardless of what your mother tells you.

Most of the infections we get inside when we inhale or swallow. They make their way into the bloodstream and move quickly in the body. Which is why we are told to wash our hands because it is in our hands we put on our face and touch your nose or mouth that begins the pattern of traffic for the infection.

The other interesting fact is that the immune system has its own system of movement called the lymphatic vessels that allow white blood cells reach the intruder. Other parties include your tonsils, sleep, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, appendix and parts of the small intestine and bone marrow. Now you know why the doctors are no longer so willing to take tonsils. They have a mission.

A healthy diet helps you maintain your immune system. All parties need nutrients such as protein, vitamins and minerals and fatty acids, which is why people suffering from malnutrition are prone to get sick. There are many theories but little evidence yet that a specific nutritional supplement will add to your protection. However, being deficient in vitamin such as vitamin b does not put the elderly at higher risk of being ill. Even extra vitamin What it shows little or no effect on the immune system.

However, people who exercise have a better immune system than are sedentary. Even if during the practice exercise will not do much good and may even cause injury. It makes sense. Regular aerobic exercise is good for the heart. Exercise builds bone and muscle. Your body will work better with exercise means that you have a better chance to protect the yourself.will also be in better shape.

The best effort, you can take is to eat a balanced diet varied, fruits and vegetables and low fat dairy products with small amounts of meat and fish. Getting enough sleep is also helpful and, of course, do not smoke.

How does the immune system work

How does the immune system work

The best way to understand the immune response to an invader, be it a virus, bacterium or any other outside agency, is to imagine a war being fought at microscopic levels in our bodies. Based on this metaphor we can think of the immune system as an "army" to defend a country from an attack or invasion from outside. Just like the soldiers do when their country is attacked, the immune system responds to any attack control organismo. The immune system is composed of a complex system of soluble protein and white blood cells (cells) that work together to respond to attacks, limiting damage and diseases caused by invading organisms.
How does the immune system work

White blood cells (produced within the bone marrow) form three "regiments" different: the phagocytes (including macrophages) and two types of lymphocytes, T cells and B cells The phagocytes are part of a defense mechanism-specific T and B cells and selectively target and represent the body's specific defense mechanism. The elements of the immune system are divided into two main categories: humoral immunity and cell mediated immunity. The humoral immunity refers to antibody production by B cells (see below details). The cell-mediated immunity refers to T cells, and in particular the CD8 cells. This terminology is particularly important for the science of vaccines, because vaccines can induce different, more or less effective, each of the two responses.

The humoral responses are able to effectively block the particles of a virus (or other agents) before the intruder managed to enter the cell: it configures itself as a first line of defense and effective. But once the virus is able to infect the cell, cellular immunity has become crucial to the battle. Each category has its own function, and its defense strategy, but both the one or the other have the same goal: to identify and destroy invading agents and / or bodies which may be harmful to our bodies, creating an 'immunological memory' of these agents, to ensure that, where the same agents present themselves again, the body is able to respond immediately to the invasion.

Within each stage there are several immune response:

First phase: the battle begins;
Second phase: the forces are multiplied;
Third stage: attack and victory against the invader;
Fourth phase: end of hostilities.

Organs of the immune system

The organs of the immune system organs are divided into primary and secondary:

The primary organs [thymus and bone marrow] is the site of origin of the cells of the immune system. E 'in the primary organs that are the precursors of T and B cells These are cells whose DNA is still in
germline configuration and within which have not yet taken place rearrangements of immunoglobulin genes or T cell receptor;
The secondary organs include the lymph nodes, spleen, appendix, plates
of Waldeyer's ring and Peyer (in other words, tonsils, adenoids, and
Palatine lymphatic tissue).

First phase: the battle begins

The phagocytes (which we consider as "spies" of the immune system) constantly patrol throughout the body (the blood stream, tissues, and the lymphatic system). Their goal is to identify every substance, every object and every foreign body (and potentially dangerous to the body). Phagocytes are also called the "scavengers" of the immune system. When the phagocytes identify an enemy, try to incorporate them immediately and destroy it.

While phagocytes are generally capable of destroying chemicals, poisons, and pollutants such as dust, smoke, or particles of asbestos, however, fail to destroy organic invaders such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa.

For this reason, on encountering an invader organic (such as influenza virus), phagocytes, or emit a chemical signal molecules that activate macrophages, phagocytes special to help the phagocytes in the attack the intruder .

A distinctive feature of macrophages is to mobilize specialized elements of the immune system to respond selectively to specific viruses. This is the defense system which includes lymphocytes (T cells and B). To ensure that mobilize lymphocytes, macrophages engulf the virus and have some "pieces" of the virus on its surface. This process is called "antigen presentation". The piece of viruses "developed" on the surface of the macrophage functions as a "red flag" that informs the T cells that an invader has entered the body, thereby activating the immune response. The T cells get their name from the thymus, an organ that is located at the base of the neck. The thymus generates a lot of T cells, each capable of recognizing a different type of antigen (an antigen is a substance that is detected and recognized by a component of the immune system, for example antibodies or cells). The type of antigen that the T cell is able to recognize is determined by the receptors located on the surface of T cells The surface of each T cell has many receptors. We can imagine a door with many locks and each lock for one specific type of key. The keys are the antigens on the surface of macrophages. There are tens of millions of antigens. Our immune system is able to create T cells capable of recognizing the most part, by activating an immune response strong and durable.

Depending on the receptors on the surface of the macrophage, a T cell can distinguish the hepatitis virus from that of 'flu, without ever having seen before. T cells that belong to this category are called "naive T cells." Naive T cells are the fresh troops, the virgin field of battle, called to intervene when we get sick we contract a new disease or a new infection. There are even T cells can recognize antigens produced in artificial laboratory that the human body has never encountered in millions of years of evolution. The type of T cell that recognizes the antigen is called the CD4 cell (also called CD4 helper T-cell or lymphocyte), one of the same name situated on its surface called receptors, in fact, CD4 receptor. Although not usually the cells that kill the invader, CD4 cells are the most important of the entire immune system. This is because their main function is to send signals that direct and mobilize other "troops" into battle. We should think of T-helper cells as troop commanders or generals of the armies raised in defense of our body. CD4 cells and macrophages and then put together their forces, beginning the second phase of the war. The role of CD4 cells in the body's immune response CD4 cells play a crucial role with respect to the body's immune response. CD4 cells protect the body of the invasion of certain bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites, and are able to destroy some cancer cells. The CD4 perform many functions, one of which is orchestrating the secretion of a variety of substances, including chemical messengers (such as interferons and interleukin), necessary for the defense of our body; CD4 cells also influence the development and functionality of macrophages and monocytes. Opportunistic infections can get the better of the organism only if the number of CD4 cells is reduced dramatically (below).

Second phase: The forces are multiplied

Once they have received information regarding the new invader by macrophages, CD4 begin to divide and send signals to other components of the defense system to ensure that the system becomes as effective as possible. The additional forces include B cells (so called because they were produced by the bone marrow, in English "bone marrow") and T lymphocytes "killer", a special type of T cells, CD8 also called by the name of a receptor found on their the surface. B cells and CD8 cells are involved in the response to the attack of foreign invaders. B cells (the "Third Regiment") are found in lymph nodes, and are part of the humoral immune system. As with T cells, B cells respond different to different antigens. When an invader is recognized as such by a B cell, the B cell starts to divide to prepare for battle. At a time when B cells reach maturity, they can become plasma B cells, substances capable of producing antibodies that can surround and immobilize a virus or bacterium that moves freely in the blood and that has not yet invaded a cell. When the virus disappears from the blood, the cells die out, leaving the field free for the future battlefield. But a second type of B-cells, called "B-cell memory," will not die, and instead remain in the bloodstream ready to respond more quickly to any external attack. Plasma B cells produce antibodies that make unarmed invading organisms. External agents are generally neutralized by adhering to their surface (thus preventing the invader's ability to carry out its offensive action). The memory cells remember an invader-specific, and remain present in both blood and lymphatic system.

Third phase: The attack and victory

One of the ways in which viruses and bacteria use to invade our bodies, our cells use to their advantage. In this way, cells become "factories" of viruses and bacteria. Responding to the orders of T helper cells, killer T cells destroy infected cells chemically piercing the membrane and ensuring that content is lost. This 'leakage' stops the replication cycle of the virus. Once the contents of an infected cell is lost, the antibodies neutralize the virus attaching itself to the viral surface. This process prevents the virus from invading other cells. The action of the immune system slows the progression of invading organism and causes it to become easy prey to the phagocytes or macrophages involved "cleaning up". The antibodies also produce chemical reactions that can kill infected cells. When all the invaders are destroyed, the war is won, and the troops are finally recalled.

Phase Four: the end of hostilities

Once invaders have been eliminated and a third type of T cells takes over: suppressor T cells or "peacemaker" release a substance that blocks the production of antibodies by B cells These specific T cells to killer T-cells also ordered to stop the attack and the CD4 cells to terminate their management function. In this case, many T cells disappear soon after the battle, but some memory T cells remain in the bloodstream and lymphatic system, and will be able to respond more faster if the same type of virus occur again. At this point the war is won and the person - for the future - is ready to face another attack by the same virus.

Immune System response to virus

Immune System response to virus

Depending on the nature of the infectious agent, the immune response will use the resources more effective. In viral infections develop different mechanisms, both in front of the free virus, and against the infected cell.
Immune System response to virus

The viruses need the cellular mechanisms of their cells they infect, to synthesize their proteins. They are intracellular parasites that depend on the infected cell in order to realize their replication. Viruses are generally very simple shapes, composed of protein and nucleic acid , although their structure and composition are highly variable. Are classified, according to leading into the nucleic acid: DNA viruses and RNA viruses, and according to their form and structure in different families.

(CS): single chain. (Cd): double chain

From the immunological point of view, are interested to know the viral replication cycle, to predict the opportunities that have different immune mechanisms to interact with the viral particle, the infected cells, or both. Normally, the viral replication cycle begins by ' union of the virus (virus free) to the host cell through specific receptors (absorption) (1), these receptors determine the tropism and specificity of infection (they can not infect any cell or any species, have their specific tropism), a Once in the cell, the virus removes its cap by releasing the nucleic acid (elimination capsule) (2), to begin the process of viral replication.

At this stage, the synthesis of cellular proteins is inhibited and will be processed only the genetic information of the virus. The mechanisms that act at this stage depends on the type of virus nucleic acid (DNA or RNA). In the case of virus DNA replication occurs (3), forming a new viral DNA. The new viral DNA, through transcription, changes in viral RNA (blue), which through translation, will implement the various viral proteins and then go viral assembly (4). In the case of RNA viruses, transcription is not necessary, you can go directly from the production of new RNA viral proteins. The mechanism of RNA replication, is different for retroviruses, such as from viral RNA by a reverse transcriptase, form viral DNA (joins the cellular genome) starting from which the different phases of replication, etc..

In most viral infections, the immune system has the opportunity to counteract the virus particle, at certain times of infection (prior to entering the cell or leave it, after replication), and the infected cells (during production of viral proteins or the assembly), since they appear in the infection of the membrane antigens that trigger the immune response. In some cases, such as pig endogenous retroviruses (have been described three types: A, B, B1 and C), or in the herpes virus (Aujeszky's disease), the infection can circulate for long periods of time without giving you a virus particle, or that infected cells express membrane antigens. In these moments, the mechanisms of the system immunity are ineffective, because the enemy does not offer any kind of signal, but at a given time (not familiar with all the circumstances) infection and reactive free new infectious virions.

From the point of view of immunology, viral infections can be fought, - once through chemical-physical barriers, fighting against the virus particle (virion), against the infected cells or against both, through different mechanisms of response to natural and acquired.

Response to natural virus

The mechanisms of the most active natural response against viral infections are mediated by 'interferon and activation of NK cells. These mechanisms are directed to the infected cells.

The interferon is a cytokine of which there are three types, called a, b and g. The first two are produced primarily by monocytes-macrophages and to a lesser extent by fibroblasts, and interferon-g is produced by lymphocytes and CD4 CD 8 and NK cells. Interferon has a large capacity and induce different antiviral mechanisms such as: transient resistance of the cells, the induction of different molecules with antiviral activity , activation of genes that express antiviral proteins and an increase of expression of SLA I and SLA II .

NK cells are activated against cells naturally infected by the virus. The mechanism of activation appears to be related to alterations in the expression of SLA in infected cells. The response of NK cells are infected, not based on a reaction antigen (TcR do not have to NK). This cytotoxic mechanism is very effective in viral infections.

Finally, the alternative pathway of complement activates also the lysis of virus particles with great efficiency.

Acquired response against the virus.

The acquired immunity reacts against viral infections, both viral particle, is against the infected cell. Against the viral particle, the most important immunological mechanism, the antibodies, while against the infected cells are the cytotoxic mechanisms mediated by cell ( CD 8 + ) or by antibodies and cells ( ADCC ) or antibody and complement (classical pathway).

Against the viral particle .

The capsid of the virus particle is composed of proteins, which are antigenic and induce a large amount of antibodies that may have different actions against viruses:

Neutralize the infection ( IgG, IgM and IgA ), preventing the virus to enter cells.
Clumping virus (IgM), reducing the number of available units.
Activation of phagocytosis when forming the antigenantibody complex and stimulate the Fc-Receptor of macrophages.

Against the infected cell.

The infected cells can articulate on their membrane antigens, long before you produce the viral assembly. Their destruction is an excellent mechanism to prevent the formation of other viruses acquired .. The answer is in contrast to cells infected with both antibodies (ADCC system, activation of the complement classical pathway, activation of phagocytosis) and cellular cytotoxicity of lymphocytes through the CD 8 +, which is one of the most effective mechanisms against viral infections.