The first law concerning the childhood of which we know can be attributed to the founder of Rome , Romulus , which allows fathers the power to kill the children born with deformities and second son. This despicable practice, combined with exposure was finally abolished by Constantine . The historical information on the care dedicated to Roman children, inform us that they are many and they start from the choice of premium , to ensure proper nourishment to the infant, with recommendations for continuing care and body care, and end with practical suggestions on to strengthen the constitution and physical education and mind .
Among the authors who have distinguished themselves in the study of problems of newborn babies should be noted Sorano of Ephesus , greek doctor (98-128 AD) who lived in Alexandria and Rome under the emperors Trajan and Hadrian and founder of the medical school said the methods. Sorano is the author of De morbis mulierum, considered the first treatise on gynecology and obstetrics in science where there are also plenty of information regarding the child such as: double ligation of the umbilical cord, cleaning of ears and mouth with oil, wrapping techniques, nutrition and breastfeeding and care for the disturbances of early childhood. Sorano is regarded by historians as the greatest of obstetric ancient Rome , founder of obstetrics and gynecology and also considered a precursor of Pediatrics.
During the Middle Ages is the Arabic medicine that allows the medical knowledge to progress and not fall into oblivion. Extended care is also that doctors turn to the Arab children's diseases. Among the Arab doctors have helped to set up a group of pediatric expertise should be mentioned: Avicenna (980-1037) Canon of the author, translated into Latin and required reading in university study, which describes in detail the exanthematous fevers , the meningitis, acute, the pleurisy , the ' apoplexy and vomiting in children; Albucasis (1013-1106) that provides therapeutic indications neonatology, Rhazes (890-923), doctor of prestige in the Arab world and the author of over two hundred volumes, deals accurately measles , smallpox and scarlet fever .
The medieval era to remember Aldobrandino of Siena , who lived around the mid-thirteenth century and author of the Regimen du corps. Charged with writing a treatise on hygiene would go a gift to the daughters of the Countess of Provence , the Sienese doctor comes naturally begin with recommendations from the early days of the birth, which spontaneously develops a small work of child care and paediatrics. More important is doctor Paul Bagellardo from Rijeka , who lived in the fifteenth century and author of De aegritudinis infantium libellum, which is: eczema, skin , muscle spasms , epilepsy , insomnia , eye diseases, diseases dependent of the ear nose and throat, mumps , abscesses tonsil, stomatitis , altered dentition , cough, vomiting, diarrhea , worms and hernia . The treatment system, the detailed description of symptoms and the clinical symptomatology.