Liver PhysiologyLiver functions were performed liver cells to hepatocytes.
• The liver produces and secretes bile, used to emulsify fats. Part of the bile is poured directly into the duodenum, the part stored in the gallbladder.
• liver performs many functions in carbohydrate metabolism:
• gluconeogenesis or synthesis of glucose from certain amino acids, lactic acid or glycerine;
• glycogenolysis and the formation of glucose from glycogen (also occurs in the muscles);
• glycogen, or glycogen from glucose;
• destruction of insulin and other hormones;
• protein metabolism.
• Liver is also involved in lipid metabolism:
• There is a synthesis of cholesterol;
• the synthesis of triglycerides.
• hemoglobin, the liver breaks', creating metabolites that are added to bile as pigment.
• liver breaks highly toxic substances and various drugs in a development called drug metabolism. This process can lead to poisoning, when the metabolite is more toxic than its predecessor.
• liver serves as a repository for numerous substances, as well as glucose (as glycogen), vitamin B 12, copper and also iron.
• In the fetus until the third month, the liver is the major site of production of red blood cells are replaced in this capacity from bone marrow at 32 weeks of pregnancy.
• liver reticuloendothelial system contains highly specialized cells of the immune system as "filters" against anti carried by the portal vein system.
Currently there is no artificial organ able to emulate all the functions of the liver. Some of them are emulated by liver dialysis , an experimental treatment for severe cases of liver failure.
One of the main activities of the liver is the detoxification of the body of toxins, wastes and other harmful elements. The most important of these shares Detoxifying is the transformation of ' ammonia present in the blood (toxic substance derived from proteins ) in a substance tolerable at higher concentrations, the ' urea . The urea is then pumped back into the blood.
Relations with other bodies
The cytologic features of hepatocytes reflect the detoxifying function of the gland. They already have an endoplasmic reticulum smooth high abundance. Quest'organulo fact, in addition to chairing the synthesis of some steroids is intensely involved in the activity of its detossifacazione of potentially harmful or foreign molecules (alcohol, drugs, etc.).